The pulse laser deposition system comprises a vacuum cavity body, and comprises one or a plurality of target materials and a movable sample carrying component. The sample transmission cavity is communicated with the vacuum cavity body. The sample transmission rod comprises a grabbing part. The grabbing part enters the vacuum cavity after capturing the sample and then enters the vacuum cavity for loading the sample after the movable sample loading part is moved to a position aligned with the grabbing part. By means of the horizontal structural layout design, falling of small particles is effectively avoided, and therefore the film growth quality is improved. The cubic layout design of the target material can effectively avoid cross contamination. All the transmission structures can be sealed in the stainless steel protective cover, so that deposition of small particles among gears is effectively avoided. Under the condition that the vacuum of the main cavity is not damaged, the sample transferring operation and the target replacing operation can be realized at the same time by replacing the grabbing head at the front end of the sample transferring rod, the operation is simple, and the working efficiency is effectively improved. System stability improves and easily maintains.